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WDS X-ray Mapping

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Understanding the spatial distribution of elements in solid materials is critical in many material science applications. Using electron microprobe, areas ranging from a few tens of microns to multiple centimeters can be easily and rapidly mapped. This is achieved by setting the wavelength dispersive spectrometers at the predetermined location of the X-ray line, or lines, of interest (i.e., Fe K-alpha) and stepping the stage (down to 200 nm steps) while bombarding the sample with a focused electron beam (for small areas, the beam can be rastered over the area). The resulting map will show the X-ray counts at each pixel mapped, and can easily be calibrated to show mass percentages. Applications range from identifying and understanding compositional variations in natural and synthetic crystals to monitoring and quantifying corrosion products to evaluating deposited thin film uniformity.

Xray map
X-ray map shows spatial variations in Al concentration on a patterned wafer